Morphology: affixation

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SESI Emília Massanti





Morphology: Affixation



Discipline: English
Teacher: Togashi
Group: Alan, Larissa, Pedro, Thaís and Thiago








Belo Horizonte,
July 2, 2011



Introduction

Affixation is a grammatical element that is combined with a word, stem, or phrase to produce derived and inflected forms. There are three types of affixes: prefixes, infixes, andsuffixes. A prefix occurs at the beginning of a word or stem (sub-mit, pre-determine, un-willing); a suffix at the end (wonder-ful, depend-ent, act-ion); and an infix occurs in the middle. English has no infixes, but they are found in American Indian languages, Greek, Tagalog, and elsewhere. Examples of English inflectional suffixes are illustrated by the -s of "cats," the -er of "longer," and the-ed of "asked."






































Prefix MID


Origin: Middle English, from mid, middle; see mid 1.

Usage Note: Many compounds other than those entered here may be formed with mid-. In forming compounds, mid- is normally joined to the following word or element without a space or hyphen: midpoint. However, if the second element beginswith a capital letter, it is always separated with a hyphen: mid-May. It is always acceptable to separate the elements with a hyphen to prevent possible confusion with another form, as, for example, to distinguish mid-den (the middle of a den) from the word midden. Note that the adjective mid is a separate word, though, as is the case with any adjective, it may be joined to another word with ahyphen when used as a unit modifier: in the mid Pacific but a mid-Pacific island.

Added to: Nouns denoting points or periods of time.

Ex.: mid-afternoon, midwinter, midnight, midbrain, mid-June.



Suffixes ABLE and IBLE

Lesson Generalization: The suffix able means “able to be.” It is commonly
added to complete words to form adjectives. When able is added to words that
end in ce orge, the e must be kept to protect the soft sound of c or g. The suffix ible is more commonly added to roots than to complete words. The i in ible gives the letter g a soft sound: legible, tangible.
Hint: Many words that begin with a use the suffix that begins with a.


Differences between ABLE and IBLE

These suffixes ‘able’ and ‘ible’are the usually confused with each other.
To those whoare accustomed to English writing, distinguishing when to use one from the other is not a hard task to do. Once one gets used to it, one need not take note of the rules behind the usage. But for beginners, there are some rules to be followed in using the suffix ‘able’ and ‘ible’ with certain root words.
Rule 1 – If the root word seems to be a complete word in itself then it is safe to add thesuffix ‘able.’
Rule 2 – In the case wherein the root word isn’t a completely spelled word then use the suffix ‘ible.’
These rules can best be shown in the following examples. In the word ‘acceptable,’ one uses the suffix ‘able’ because the word ‘accept’ as the root word is a completely spelled word. Hence, it is inappropriate if one uses ‘ible’ like ‘acceptible.’ For the second rule, the word‘compatible’ uses the suffix ‘ible’ because the root word ‘compat’ is not a complete word. That’s why it will also be inappropriate to use the suffix ‘able’ to ‘compat’ making the final word into ‘compatable.’
Rule 3 – Nevertheless, if the root word ends in the letter ‘e’ then drop that letter first before adding ‘able’ as in the case of the word ‘advise’ that becomes ‘advisable.’
It is also said thatthe suffix ‘ible’ is used for words that have a Latin root or origin. It is estimated that there are about 180 words that have the suffix ‘ible.’ Some of the most common examples of words that make use of ‘ible’ are: accessible, audible, combustible, comprehensible, irreversible and many more.
The suffix ‘able’ can also be attached to words with a Latin root but only in rare occasions. This is...
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