Modelagem de secadores industriais

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3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4

Basic Process Calculations and Simulations in Drying
Zdzisław Pakowski and Arun S. Mujumdar

Introduction ............................................................................................................................................. 54 Objectives................................................................................................................................................. 54 Basic Classes of Models and Generic Dryer Types.................................................................................. 54 General Rules for a Dryer Model Formulation....................................................................................... 55 3.4.1 Mass and Energy Balances........................................................................................................... 56 3.4.1.1 Mass Balances ................................................................................................................ 56 3.4.1.2 Energy balances.............................................................................................................. 56 3.4.2 Constitutive Equations................................................................................................................. 57 3.4.2.1 Characteristic Drying Curve........................................................................................... 58 3.4.2.2 Kinetic Equation (e.g., Thin-Layer Equations) .............................................................. 58 3.4.3 Auxiliary Relationships................................................................................................................ 59 3.4.3.1 Humid Gas Properties and Psychrometric Calculations ................................................ 59 3.4.3.2 Relations between Absolute Humidity, Relative Humidity, Temperature, and Enthalpy of Humid Gas ................................................................... 60 3.4.3.3 Calculations InvolvingDew-Point Temperature, Adiabatic-Saturation Temperature, and Wet-Bulb Temperature ..................................................................... 60 3.4.3.4 Construction of Psychrometric Charts ........................................................................... 61 3.4.3.5 Wet SolidProperties....................................................................................................... 61 3.4.4 Property Databases....................................................................................................................... 62 3.5 General Remarks on Solving Models ...................................................................................................... 62 3.6 Basic Models of Dryers in SteadyState................................................................................................... 62 3.6.1 Input–Output Models ................................................................................................................... 62 3.6.2 Distributed Parameter Models ..................................................................................................... 63 3.6.2.1 Cocurrent Flow.............................................................................................................. 63 3.6.2.2 Countercurrent Flow...................................................................................................... 64 3.6.2.3 Cross-Flow ..................................................................................................................... 65 3.7 Distributed Parameter Models for theSolid............................................................................................ 68 3.7.1 One-Dimensional Models ............................................................................................................. 68 3.7.1.1 Nonshrinking Solids ....................................................................................................... 68 3.7.1.2 Shrinking Solids...
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