Lng technology, s madhavan

Disponível somente no TrabalhosFeitos
  • Páginas : 6 (1457 palavras )
  • Download(s) : 0
  • Publicado : 29 de agosto de 2012
Ler documento completo
Amostra do texto
LNG Technology
Dr. S. Madhavan
Global Director, Plant Services (Retd.) Kellogg Brown & Root (KBR), Inc. Houston, TX, USA

Presented in Dehra Dun 09 August 2010

Natural Gas Utilization
• Distribution by Pipeline • Liquefaction and Regasification • Compressed gas (CNG)

or
• • • • Conversion to Liquid Hydrocarbons Conversion to Methanol Conversion to Fertilizer Conversion to ElectricPower

The Hydrocarbon Trend
Hydrocarbon Ratio of Primary Energy
4 3 H/C 2 1 0 1700 1800 1900 Century 2000 2100

Stranded Gas and Major Consumer Markets

Legend
Stranded Gas Major Markets

Relative Costs of Gas Transportation
Pipeline vs. LNG
$5.00 $ /M M B T U $4.00 $3.00 $2.00 $1.00 $0.00 0 1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 MILES Offshore Pipeline Onshore Pipeline LNG 6,000 7,000 8,0009,000

How not to transport gas !!

How not to transport gas !!

LNG Technology

Typical Natural Gas Composition
Typical Composition at Inlet of LNG Plant
1.0 - 2.0 % 85.0 - 95.0 % 5.0 - 10.0 % 2.0 - 5.0 % 2.0 - 3.0 % 1.0 - 4.0 % Trace: Nitrogen Methane Ethane - - Feedstock for Ethylene Propane Total Butane+ Carbon Dioxide H2S, Hg, R-SH, COS
LPG
Petrochemical Feedstock

LNGLiquefied Natural Gas

- 161oC !!

Typical LNG Product Specifications
Component
• Carbon Dioxide • Mercury • Nitrogen • Water Vapor • Benzene • Ethane • Propane • Butane • Pentane and heavier • High Heating Value

Limits (maximum)
50 ppm 0.01 micrograms per normal m3 1 mol% 1 ppmv 1 ppmv < 6 – 8 mol% (Feedstock for Ethylene!) LPG < 3 mol% Petrochemical < 2 mol% Feedstock < 0.1 mol% =1050Btu/SCF (Europe and USA) up to 1140 Btu/SCF (East Asia)

LNG Train Capacities
Train capacities
• • • • • • • • Camel Plant, Algeria - 1964 - 0.4 MTPA Sonatrach LNG, Algeria - 1970’s - 1.0 - 1.4 MTPA Malaysia LNG (Satu), Bintulu - 1983 - 2.6 MTPA Bontang LNG Trains - 1980’s-90’s - 1.6-3.0 MTPA Woodside LNG - 1980’s-90’s - 2.2 - 4.2 MTPA SEGAS LNG - 2004 - 5.0 MTPA Qatargas LNG, Qatar - 2007 -7.8 MTPA Future Trains - - - - 2010 - 9.0 MTPA

TYPICAL BLOCK DIAGRAM - LIQUEFACTION

C2

FUEL

C4 BY PRODUCT GASOLINE FUEL

HYDROCARBON FRACTIONATION

NATURAL GAS FEED

C2

C3

C4 LNG OFFSITE LNG STORAGE

CO2 REMOVAL

DEHYDRATION & MERCURY CHILLING LIQUEFACTION NITROGEN REJECTION REMOVAL

REFRIGERATION SYSTEM

REFRIGERATION SYSTEM

Typical Acid Gas Removal SchemeReflux Condenser Acid Gas

Treated Gas Lean Amine Lean Absorber Semi-Lean SemiAmine Amine Cooler

Low-Pressure LowFlash

Bulk Absorber Flash Gas Sour Gas HighHighPressure Flash

Stripper

Reboiler

Rich Amine

Lean/Rich Exchanger

Typical Dehydration Scheme Process Flow
Regeneration Gas Compressor

Drier Precooler Regeneration Gas Knockout Drum

Regeneration Cooler

WaterSaturated Natural Gas

Driers (ABS) Water Hydrocarbon Liquid

Driers (Regen) Regeneration Heater

Filter

Dry Gas To Liquefaction

Typical Mercury Removal Scheme Process Flow

From Acid Gas Removal Section

Mercury Removal Column

Outlet Gas Specification is generally 10 nanograms of Mercury per cubic meter of gas.

To Liquefaction Section

Removal of Trace Mercury ContaminantsMercury has to be removed from natural gas and its associated condensate to prevent: • corrosion in aluminum equipment

Removal of mercury in the gas phase is by:
adsorption on sulfur impregnated carbon or alumina carrier molecular sieve

Refrigeration Cycles
Types of Licensed Processes:
• Propane Precooled Mixed Refrigerant Cycle (APCI) • Pure Component Cascade Cycle
– PhillipsOptimized Cascade

• Dual Mixed Refrigerant Cycle
– Technip & Snamprogetti

• Single Mixed Refrigerant Cycle
– PRICO

• Linde Technology

Basic Refrigeration - Simple PFD
(Process Flow Diagram)
Q High Temperature
Condenser
(Ambient)

Work

Air-cooled or water-cooled

Compressor

Refrigeration Loop
Accumulator

Suction Drum Heat Exchanger J-T Valve

Q Low Temperature...
tracking img