Livro hidrologia

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HYDROGEOLOGY

Hydrogeology
Principles and Practice
Kevin M. Hiscock
School of Environmental Sciences University of East Anglia United Kingdom

© 2005 by Blackwell Science Ltd a Blackwell Publishing company BLACKWELL PUBLISHING 350 Main Street, Malden, MA 02148-5020, USA 108 Cowley Road, Oxford OX4 1JF, UK 550 Swanston Street, Carlton, Victoria 3053, Australia The right of Kevin M.Hiscock to be identified as the Author of this Work has been asserted in accordance with the UK Copyright, Designs, and Patents Act 1988. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, except as permitted by the UK Copyright, Designs, and PatentsAct 1988, without the prior permission of the publisher. First published 2005 by Blackwell Science Ltd Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Hiscock, K.M. (Kevin M.) Hydrogeology : principles and practice / Kevin M. Hiscock. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-632-05763-7 (pbk. : alk. paper) 1. Hydrogeology. I. Title. GB1003.2.H57 2005 551.49—dc22 2004014013A catalogue record for this title is available from the British Library. Set in 10/12pt Dante by Graphicraft Limited, Hong Kong Printed and bound in the United Kingdom by TJ International, Padstow, Cornwall The publisher’s policy is to use permanent paper from mills that operate a sustainable forestry policy, and which has been manufactured from pulp processed using acid-free and elementarychlorine-free practices. Furthermore, the publisher ensures that the text paper and cover board used have met acceptable environmental accreditation standards. For further information on Blackwell Publishing, visit our website: www.blackwellpublishing.com

Contents

List of boxes Preface Acknowledgements Symbols and abbreviations 1 Introduction 1.1 Scope of this book 1.2 What is hydrogeology?1.3 Early examples of groundwater exploitation 1.4 History of hydrogeology 1.5 The water cycle 1.6 Groundwater as a natural resource 1.7 Management and protection of groundwater resources in the United Kingdom 1.8 European Union Water Framework Directive 1.9 Management and protection of groundwater resources in the United States 1.10 Groundwater resources in developing countries 1.11 Furtherreading 2 Physical hydrogeology 2.1 Introduction 2.2 Porosity 2.3 Darcy’s law and hydraulic conductivity 2.4 Isotropy and homogeneity 2.5 Aquifers, aquitards and aquicludes 2.6 Hydraulic properties of fractured rocks 2.7 Karst aquifers 2.8 Groundwater potential and hydraulic head 2.9 Interpretation of hydraulic head and groundwater conditions 2.9.1 Groundwater flow direction 2.9.2 Water table andpotentiometric surface maps 2.9.3 Types of groundwater conditions 2.10 Classification of springs and intermittent streams 2.11 Groundwater flow theory 2.11.1 Transmissivity and storativity of confined aquifers 2.11.2 Release of water from confined aquifers

ix xi xii xiii 1 1 2 3 3 7 9 12 13 14 15 15 18 18 18 20 23 26 26 28 31 33 33 34 34 41 46 46 46

vi

Contents 2.11.3 Transmissivity and specificyield of unconfined aquifers 2.11.4 Equations of groundwater flow Analytical solution of one-dimensional groundwater flow problems Groundwater flow patterns Groundwater and geology 2.14.1 Hydrogeological environments of the United Kingdom Further reading 51 55 57 58 62 63 73 74 74 74 76 78 80 87 88 89 90 99 107 111 117 122 122 122 123 126 126 127 131 133 136 138 140 141 141 141 141 142 146 146 147 149151 151 154 155

2.12 2.13 2.14 2.15

3 Chemical hydrogeology 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Properties of water 3.3 Chemical composition of groundwater 3.4 Sequence of hydrochemical evolution of groundwater 3.5 Groundwater sampling and graphical presentation of hydrochemical data 3.6 Concept of chemical equilibrium 3.6.1 Kinetic approach to chemical equilibrium 3.6.2 Energetic approach to chemical...
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