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The field and subfields of psychology are broad in scope and colossal in size. Four major areas of psychology are social psychology, counseling psychology, biologicalpsychology/neuroscience, and cognitive psychology.

Social psychology is the study of thoughts, behaviors, and feelings in the presence or imagined presence of others. Steinberg states that, “major causesof morbidity and mortality among American teenagers are self-inflicted behaviors.” He indicates “that it’s not hard to change people’s attitudes and knowledge but it’s really hard to changetheir behavior” {, #116}.

Counseling psychology covers the area of personal and interpersonal functioning. Trainees and trainers in counseling psychology programs are expected tobe committed to the social values of respect for diversity, inclusion, and equity {Bieschke, 2009 #120}.

Biopsychology is a branch of psychology that analyzes how the brain andneurotransmitters influence our behaviors, thoughts and feelings – the state of the body is central to guiding motivational behaviors {Berridge, 2010 #1157}. This field can be thought of as acombination of basic psychology and neuroscience {Cherry, 2012 #1207}.

Cognitive psychology is the branch of psychology that studies mental processes, including how people think, perceive,remember, and learn {Cherry, 2012 #1207}. The consciousness of the human mind {The Open University, 2010 #1159} has long been a topic of fascination and curiosity amongst writers, artists,and psychologists. Ultimately, the model for cognitive therapy proposes that dysfunctional thinking (which influences the patient’s mood and behavior) is common to all psychologicaldisturbances and that while therapy must be tailored to the individual, there are, nevertheless, certain principles that underlie cognitive behavior therapy for all patients {Beck, 2011 #1467}.
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