Interface gestual

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Designing Gestural Interfaces

Dan Saffer

Beijing

· Cambridge · Farnham · Köln · Sebastopol · Taipei · Tokyo

Designing Gestural Interfaces
by Dan Saffer
Copyright © 2009 O’Reilly Media, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in Canada. Published by O’Reilly Media, Inc., 1005 Gravenstein Highway North, Sebastopol, CA 95472. O’Reilly books may be purchased for educational, business, orsales promotional use. Online editions are also available for most titles (safari.oreilly.com). For more information, contact our corporate/institutional sales department: (800) 998-9938 or corporate@oreilly.com. Editor: Mary Treseler Production Editor: Rachel Monaghan Copyeditor: Audrey Doyle Proofreader: Katie Nopper DePasquale Indexer: Julie Hawks Cover Designer: Karen Montgomery InteriorDesigner: Ron Bilodeau Illustrator: Jessamyn Read

Printing History:
November 2008: First Edition. Nutshell Handbook, the Nutshell Handbook logo, and the O’Reilly logo are registered trademarks of O’Reilly Media, Inc. Designing Gestural Interfaces, the image of a channel-billed toucan, and related trade dress are trademarks of O’Reilly Media, Inc. Many of the designations used by manufacturers andsellers to distinguish their products are claimed as trademarks. Where those designations appear in this book, and O’Reilly Media, Inc. was aware of a trademark claim, the designations have been printed in caps or initial caps. While every precaution has been taken in the preparation of this book, the publisher and author assume no responsibility for errors or omissions, or for damages resulting fromthe use of the information contained herein.

This book uses Repkover,™ a durable and flexible lay-flat binding. ISBN: 978-0-596-51839-4 [F]

Contents
Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiii
Chapter 1

Introducing Interactive Gestures
Tap Is the New Click Direct Versus Indirect Manipulation A Brief History of Gestural Interfaces

. . . . . . .. . . .

1
3 4 6 12 16 19 22 25 27 28 29 30

The Mechanics of Touchscreens and Gestural Controllers Designing Interactive Gestures: The Basics The Characteristics of Good Gestural Interfaces The Attributes of Gestures Interface Conventions Determining the Appropriate Gesture Using People to Determine the Appropriate Gesture Matching the Gesture to the Behavior For Further Reading

Chapter2

Designing for the Human Body . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Basic Kinesiology Muscles Joints Motions The Ergonomics of Interactive Gestures Human Factors The Ergonomics of Motion Fingers and Hands Screen Coverage Designing Touch Targets Accessibility For Further Reading 31 31 32 35 37 37 38 39 40 41 44 44

vi

Contents

Chapter 3

Patterns for Touchscreens and Interactive Surfaces. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
How to Use Patterns Tap to Open/Activate What Use When Why How Examples Tap to Select What Use When Why How Examples Drag to Move Object What Use When Why How Examples Slide to Scroll What Use When Why How Examples Spin to Scroll What Use When Why How Examples 45 46 46 46 46 46 47 48 48 48 48 48 48 50 50 50 50 50 50 52 52 52 52 5253 54 54 54 54 54 55

Contents

vii

Slide and Hold for Continuous Scroll What Use When Why How Examples Flick to Nudge What Use When Why How Examples Fling to Scroll What Use When Why How Examples Tap to Stop What Use When Why How Examples Pinch to Shrink and Spread to Enlarge What Use When Why How Examples Two Fingers to Scroll What Use When Why

56 56 56 56 56 57 58 58 58 58 58 59 60 6060 60 60 61 62 62 62 62 62 62 64 64 64 64 64 65 66 66 66 66

viii

Contents

How Examples Ghost Fingers What Use When Why How Examples

66 67 68 68 68 68 68 69

Chapter 4

Patterns for Free-form Interactive Gestures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
Proximity Activates/Deactivates What Use When Why How Examples Move Body to Activate What Use When...
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