Inovação disruptiva

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É opinião corrente que empresas, o governo e o mundo acadêmico vão estar menos dispostos a correr riscos e a trabalhar com os custos de curto prazo que acompanham o território da inovação.
O autor de “O Dilema da Inovação: quando novas tecnologias levam empresas ao fracasso” tem destacado o papel das Inovações que se orientam para pequenas parcelas do mercado consumidor, que demandam soluções com características distintas do padrão de mercado. A outra possibilidade de ruptura se dá com acriação de novas ofertas voltadas a quem ainda não é consumidor, oferecendo, em especial, produtos com custos mais baixos e qualidade equivalente ao dos líderes de mercado.
Em um cenário de instabilidade e possível recessão mundial, as propostas de Christensen têm tido ainda maior receptividade
disruptive technology-simple, convenient-to-use innovationsthat initially ure used
only by unsophisticated customers at the low end of markets. Ironically, two of the fundumentul
puradigms of good management-the importance of listening closely to customers cind
the necessity of bringing to market a regular flow of improved products that can he sold (it
higher profit margins-are the reasons why well-managed companies have consistently fuilrd
Ltihencwlfronted by disruptive technologies in their markets.
Recent studies of how some of the most respected and powerful institutions in the forprofit
sector have failed, however, suggest that even the most prominent educational institutions of our
time also might be threatened by disruptive technologies.
In the study of management, it has long been understood that bureaucracy, arrogance, poorplanning,
failure to understand customers’ needs, and short-term investment horizons are reasons why
many companies fail.
It was precisely because they listened too exclusively to what their best customers
wanted, developed streams of new products and services that met these customers’ needs,
and invested in new products, processes, and services that promised the greatest profitability that
thesecompanies lost their positions of industry leadership.

The processes and incentives that companies use to keep focused on their main customers work
so well that they often blind great companies to important new technologies in emerging markets.
Many companies have learned the hard way the perils of ignoring new technologies that do not initially
meet the needs of mainstream customers.Performance trajectories-the rate at which the performance
of a product is improving over time
Inovação sustentadora - Sustaining technologies tend to maintain a rate of performance
improvement, that is, they give customers more and better in the attributes they already value
disruptive technologies introduce a very different package of attributes to a marketplace than the ones that mainstreamcustomers historically have valued, and they often perform initially far worse along one or two dimensions of performance that are particularly important to those customers. As a result, mainstream customers are unwilling-indeed, unable-to use disruptive products in applications they know and understand. At first, therefore, disruptive technologies tend to be used and valued only in new markets orapplications; in fact, they generally make possible the emergence of new markets. For example, Sony's early portable radios that used transistors sacrificed sound fidelity but created a market for portable radios by offering a new and different package of attributes: small size,
light weight, and portability.
It seems that as long as the technology is crucial to helping them serve their most...
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