Illex paraguariensis

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LWT - Food Science and Technology 45 (2012) 28e35

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Polyphenol input to the antioxidant activity of yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis) extracts
Julia Valerga a, Mario Reta b, Maria Cecilia Lanari a, *

Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo en Criotecnología deAlimentos (CIDCA), CONICET - La Plata, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas Universidad Nacional de La Plata (UNLP), Calle 47 y 116 S/N , La Plata (B1900AJJ), Buenos Aires, Argentina b Departamento de Química Analítica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas (UNLP), Argentina

a r t i c l e i n f o
Article history: Received 21 January 2011 Received in revised form 14 July 2011 Accepted 15 July 2011 Keywords: Yerbamate Ilex paraguariensis Antioxidant activity Polyphenols Oil Emulsions

a b s t r a c t
Industrial processing modified the polyphenol content, composition and antioxidant activity of the yerba mate extracts. Pre-dried leaves were the most appropriate raw material combining maximum activity with high polyphenol content. Chlorogenic acid and its derivatives were the major components of thephenolic fraction but we also identified caffeic, rutin and quercetin. Yerba mate extracts inhibited malonedialdehyde formation in sunflower oil (20 mmol/kg) and conjugated dienes production in oil/water emulsions (60 mmol/kg). Enhancing the dose to 60 mmol/kg reduced 27.8% the extract’s activity in oil. The relationship between polyphenol composition and antioxidant activity of a mixture of caffeic,chlorogenic, kaempferol, quercetin and rutin was satisfactorily predicted with a polynomial model. Results showed that quercetin was the highest contributor to the linear term followed by kaempferol and caffeic acid while rutin and chlorogenic acid inputs were the lowest. The model detected five synergistic and six antagonistic effects. Ó 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction Yerbamate (Ilex paraguariensis) tea, a widely consumed beverage in Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay, is gaining rapid penetration into the USA and the European countries because of its alleged therapeutic capacity. Several publications reported that yerba mate tea has hypocholesterolemic, hepatoprotective, diuretic and antioxidant properties (Filip & Ferraro, 2003; Filip, Lottito, Ferraro, &Fraga, 2000). It can also improve the cardiovascular system (Schinella, Troiani, Davila, de Buschiazzo, & Tournier, 2005) and act as a central nervous system stimulant (Gonzales, Ferreira, Vazquez, Moyna, & Paz, 1993). Mate infusions have been proposed as a dietary supplement for the prevention of artherosclerosis and coronary heart disease (Carini, Facino, Aldini, Calloni, & Colomo, 1998; Heck &González de Mejia, 2007). In a recent publication, Puangpraphant and Gonzalez de Mejia (2009) demonstrated that yerba mate phytochemicals inhibited proinflammatory markers. Some of the pharmacological properties attributed to mate tea have been related to its high content of polyphenolic antioxidants especially chlorogenic acid (CL) and its

* Corresponding author. Tel.: þ54 221 424 9287/425 4853.E-mail address: (M.C. Lanari). 0023-6438/$ e see front matter Ó 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.lwt.2011.07.022

derivatives (3, 4-di-O- dicaffeoylquinic, 3, 5-di-O- dicaffeoylquinic and 4, 5-di-O-dicaffeoylquinic acids), caffeic acid (C) as well as flavonoids like quercetin (Q), rutin (R) and kaempferol (K) (Heck, Schmalko & Gonzalez de Mejia, 2008).Oxidative rancidity is the main cause for the development of undesirable changes in flavor, color and the production of toxic carcinogenic compounds in food products. Research published in the last years and subsequent publicity has fostered significant consumer resistance to the use of synthetic antioxidants and a growing interest for “natural” minimally processed additives that can extend the shelf...