LAB11-1: Human Blood Types
Purpose: To determine human blood types and Rh factor, by interpreting antigen/antibody reactions, and to eliminate suspects.
Organism: Homo sapiens – “humans”
1. If human blood type A is mixed with anti-A and anti-B antibody serums, then coagulation will occur in anti-A.
2. If human blood type B is mixed withanti-A and anti-B antibody serums, then coagulation will occur in anti-B.
3. If human blood type AB is mixed with anti-A and anti-B antibody serums, then coagulation will occur in anti-A and anti-B.
4. If human blood type O is mixed with anti-A and anti-B antibody serums, then coagulation will not occur.
Table 1: Antigen/Antibody Reactions of Known Blood Antigens (coagulation YES/NO)Blood Type Anti-A Anti-B
A Yes No
B No Yes
AB Yes Yes
O No No
Rh Factor Anti-Rh
Rh + Yes
Rh - No
Table 2: Identification of Antigens Present in Blood Samples with Unknown Antigens
Antibody Self Murderer
Anti-A No Yes
Anti-B Yes No
Anti-Rh Yes Yes
Blood Type and Rh Factor B+ A+
Blood Type A Blood Type B
Blood Type AB Blood Type O
Self Murderer Rh Factor
Anti-Rh Blood Sample
Rh + Rh-
No coagulation Coagulation
1. The blood types that show clumping when anti-A serum was added was the A and AB, because this blood types have the protein “A”, and when the anti-A serum is mixed with the blood, it reacts with the protein “A”, causing coagulation.
2. A person with type B blood could safely donate blood to people with blood types B and AB,because both of those have the protein “B” in the blood, and that way it would not cause any coagulation.
3. You could determine whether two samples are compatible for a transfusion if no typing of serum were available mixing the both samples. If it reacts (coagulate), you cannot use it for transfusion.
4. A person with type O blood only able to receive type O blood because this blood type don’thave any of the proteins (A or B). So if receive from any other type of blood, it will react.
5. If an unborn baby has a mother who is heterozygous for type A blood and the father has type AB blood, the baby have 25% of chance to be type B blood.
6. Rh disease is one of the causes of hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN). The disease ranges from mild to severe, and typically occursonly in some second or subsequent pregnancies of Rh negative women where the fetus' father is Rh positive, leading to an Rh+ pregnancy. During birth, the mother may be exposed to the infant's blood, and this causes the development of antibodies, which may affect the health of subsequent Rh+ pregnancies. In mild cases, the fetus may have mild anemia with reticulocytosis. In moderate or severecases the fetus may have a more marked anemia and erythroblastosis (erythroblastosis fetalis). When the disease is very severe it may cause HDN, hydrops fetalis, or stillbirth. The possible genotypes for the mother is --, for the father is ++ or +-, and for the baby is +-. The possible phenotypes for the mother is Rh -, and for the father and the baby is Rh +.
During any pregnancy a small amount ofthe baby's blood can enter the mother's circulation. If the mother is Rh negative and the baby is Rh positive, the mother produces antibodies against the Rhesus D antigen on her baby's red blood cells. During this and subsequent pregnancies the IgG is able to pass through the placenta into the fetus and if the level of it is sufficient, it will cause destruction of Rhesus D positive fetal red...