Gramatica polonesa

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Polish Grammar in a Nutshell

© Oscar E. Swan University of Pittsburgh 2003

Information on Polish sounds and grammar which should be mastered by the intermediate-level student of the language.




CONTENTS The Polish Alphabet and Sounds 5 Notes on Spelling and Pronunciation 6 Sound Changes 8 Nouns 9 Noun Gender 9 Casesand Case Use 11 Noun Phrases 13 Regular Noun Endings 15 Distribution of Endings 16 Noun Endings Depending on the Hard-Soft Distinction 17 Noun Declensions 19 Days of the Week 23 Compass Directions 23 Months 24 Pronouns 24 Personal Pronouns 24 Possessive Pronouns 26 Demonstrative and Relative Pronouns 27 Intensive Pronoun 28 Reflexive Pronoun 28 Distributive Pronoun 29 Adjectives 30 AdjectiveDeclension 30 Adjective-Noun Order 30 Comparison of Adjectives 31 Adjective Opposites 31 Adverbs 33 Comparison of Adverbs 33 Non-Adjectival Adverbs 35 Numerals 37 Cardinal Numerals 37 Compound Numbers 38 Declension of Cardinal Numerals 38



Collective Numerals 41 Reified Numerals 42 Indefinite Numerals 42 Counting People 42 Ordinal Numerals 43 Time of Day 43Dates, Years, Expressing ‘How Old’ 44 Prepositions 45 Prepositions Arranged According to Case 46 Prepositions Expressing 'at', 'to', 'from' 47 Expressions of Time 47 Polish Translations of 'For' 48 Conjunctions 50 Verbs 51 Finite Verb Categories 53 Present Tense 53 Summary of Verb Classes 56 Imperative 57 Past Tense 58 Future Tense 60 Perfective and Imperfective Aspect 60 Verbs of Motion 62Conditional Mood 63 Participles and Gerunds 64 Passive Voice 66 Impersonal Verbs 67 Reflexive Verbs 68 Important Sentence Constructions 71 Constructions with the Infinitive 71 Modal Expressions 71 ‘Introducing’ Sentences 71 Expressing 'There Is' 72 Predicate Nouns and Adjectives 72 Yes-No Questions 72 Negation 72 Word Order 73 Sentence Intonation 73


POLISH GRAMMAR IN A NUTSHELL THE POLISHALPHABET AND SOUNDS Here is the Polish alphabet: a, à, b, c, ç, d, e, ´, f, g, h, I, j, k, l, ∏, m, n, ƒ, o, ó, p, r, s, Ê, t, u, w, y, z, ê, ˝. SOUND VALUES OF THE LETTERS LETTER APPROXIMATE ENGLISH SOUND EXAMPLE

a father tak thus, so, yes, raz once à dome sà they are, wà˝ snake The sound à is pronounced like om, except that the lips or tongue are not completely closed to pronounce the m, leaving anasal resonance instead. b big bok side, aby so that bibeautiful bieg course, run, race, tobie to you c fits co what, noc night, taca tray ch hall chata cottage, ucho ear, dach roof The sound of ch is much raspier and noisier than English h. cicheek ciasto cake, cicho quiet cz chalk czas time, gracz player, t´cza rainbow ç cheek choç although, niçmi thread (Inst. pl.) The letters ç and ci- arepronounced the same. The combination ci- is used before a vowel. The letter c before i is pronounced like ç/ci-. The sound of ç/ci-, pronounced with the mouth in the position of English )y), is different from that of cz, pronounced with the mouth in the position of English "r". d do data date, lada counter dz odds cudzy foreign, wodze reins dzijeans dziadek grandfather, ludzie people jeans wiedêmawitch. ludêmi dê d˝ jaw d˝ez jazz, rad˝a rajah The letters dê and dzi- are pronounced the same. The combination dzi- is used before a vowel. The letters dz before i are pronounced like dê/dzi-. The sound of dê/dzi-, pronounced with the mouth in the position of English "y", is different from that of d˝, pronounced with the mouth in the position of English "r". e ever ten this (masc.),ale but, Edek Eddie ´ sense g´Ê goose, t´skniç long for The sound ´ is pronounced like em, except that the lips or tongue are not completely closed to pronounce the m, leaving a nasal resonance instead. At the end of a word, the letter ´ is normally pronounced the same as e: naprawd´ "naprawde". f felt farba paint, lufa rifle-barrel, blef bluff g get guma rubber, noga leg, foot gibug you gie∏da...
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