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Global Entrepreneurship Monitor

2010 Global Report

Entrepreneurship

´´ Poduzetnistvo

O

Entreprenørskap

Okuyiiyawo

Entrepreneuriat

Emprendimiento

´´ Podjetnistvo

Empreendedorismo

Entreprenörskap

Donna Kelley

Niels Bosma

José Ernesto Amorós

Global Entrepreneurship Monitor

*

2010 Global Report

Donna J. Kelley, Niels Bosma, José Ernesto Amorós 2

GEM Global Report 2010

GLOBAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP MONITOR 2010 Global Report Donna J. Kelley, Niels Bosma, José Ernesto Amorós

FOUNDING AND SPONSORING INSTITUTIONS: Babson College, Babson Park, MA, United States Lead Sponsoring Institution and Founding Institution Universidad del Desarrollo, Santiago, Chile Sponsoring Institution London Business School, London, United Kingdom FoundingInstitution

Although GEM data were used in the preparation of this report, their interpretation and use are the sole responsibility of the authors. The authors thank Marcia Cole, Yana Litovsky and Carlos Poblete for their various contributions to this report. They also wish to acknowledge the contributions of Michael Hay and Jonathan Levie for their insightful comments on this report. The authorswould also like to express their gratitude to all participating GEM 2010 national teams. Design and Cover: Trinidad Concha Güell

© 2011 by Donna J. Kelley, Niels Bosma, José Ernesto Amorós and Global Entrepreneurship Research Association (GERA)

3

Table of Contents
Executive Summary 1. Introduction and Background
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 Entrepreneurship’s Role in the Global Economy GEMMeasures Economic Development Level and Entrepreneurship The GEM Model Structure of the Report

7 12
12 12 14 14 16

2. A Global Perspective on Entrepreneurship in 2010
2.1 Attitudes 2.2 Activity 2.3 Aspirations

17
17 22 40

3. Entrepreneurship Framework Conditions — an Assessment of Institutional Quality by National Experts 4. Entrepreneurship and the Global Economy in 2010
4.1 TheImpact of Recessions on Entrepreneurship: Evidence from GEM Data 4.2 Analysis of GEM Economies: 2002–2010 4.3 Entrepreneurs’ Impressions of the Impact of the Recession on Entrepreneurship Activity

45 49
50 52 55

5. Conclusions and Implications Appendix 1: Background on GEM Appendix 2: Glossary of Main Measures and Terminology Appendix 3: Characteristics of GEM Surveys

58 61 63 65

4GEM Global Report 2010

GEM National Teams 2010 About the Authors GEM Sponsors Contacts Notes and References

67 78 79 80 81

List of Figures
Figure 1: The Entrepreneurship Process and GEM Operational Definitions Figure 2: Characteristics of Economic Groups and Key Development Focus Figure 3: The GEM Model Figure 4: Total Early-Stage Entrepreneurial Activity (TEA) for 59 Economies in 2010, byPhase of Economic Development, Showing 95 Percent Confidence Intervals Figure 5: Total Early-Stage Entrepreneurial Activity Rates and Per Capita GDP 2010 Figure 6: Necessity-Based Early-Stage Entrepreneurial Activity and Per Capita GDP 2010 Figure 7: Correlation Between Rule of Law and the Degree of Improvement-Driven Opportunity motivation for Early-Stage Entrepreneurial Activity Figure 8:Sector Distribution of Total Early-Stage Entrepreneurship Activity by Phase of Economic Development Figure 9: Sector Distribution of Total Early-Stage Entrepreneurship Activity by Geographic Region Figure 10: Age Distribution of Entrepreneurs by Phase of Economic Development Figure 11: Age Distribution of Entrepreneurs by Geographic Region Figure 12: GEM Economies Ranked by Level of FemaleParticipation in Total Early-Stage Entrepreneurship Activity (TEA) by Economic Group, 2010 Figure 13: Established Entrepreneurial Activity for 59 Economies in 2010, by Phase of Economic Development, Showing 95 Percent Confidence Intervals Figure 14: Discontinuations of Entrepreneurial Activity and Per Capita GDP 2010 Figure 15: Reasons for Business Discontinuance by Economic Phase, 2008–2010 Figure 16: Job...
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