Funcionamento da lingua (periodo, oracao, paragrafo e texto)

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Introduction
The preceding chapters of this subject (Syntax) focused precisely on the major phrases (NP,VP,Vgrp, and AdvP) structured into sentences. The basic VP was shown to comprise a Vgrp complemented by NPs, APs and PPs. Therefore this work will introduce and deal with the main aspects in chapter 7. In this chapter, the main focus of attention will be on the internal structure of NP andthe elements to be found within NP. For instance, NP, in the basic case, has just two immediate constituents: DET (determiner) and NOM (nominal).
Within the NOM, we can also find a further constituent which is pre-modifier and it by its time includes quantifying adjectives (QA).
Yet within this chapter, “More on Noun Phrase”, the work will also focus on the Participle Phrase.
Purposes
Thework in presentation has as its purposes, the following:
General:
• To give an overview about Noun Phrases;
Specific:
• To talk about Determiners; Pre-determiners; Pre-modifiers in NOM; Quantifying adjectives and Participle Phrase.

Participle Phrases (PartP)
Pre-modifiers in NOM
Pre-determiners
Determiner
Determiners
Determiners are a fixed set of “grammatical” words which giveinformation relating to definiteness and indefiniteness (roughly, whether thing referred to by NP is familiar to both speakers and hearer or not) and inform about quantity and proportion, (Roberts, 19…, 154).
Determiner is a word, phrase or affix that occurs together with a noun or noun phrase and serves to express the reference that noun or noun phrase in the context. www.wikipedia.comaccessed on 4th/ 03/2013, at 14:11mn.
When the people or things that you are talking about have already been mentioned, you use specific determiners:
• The definite article: the
• Demonstratives: this, that, these and those;
• Possessives: my, your, his, her, its, our and their;
e.g1: the man began to run towards the boy.
e.g2: Young people do not like these operas.
e.g3: Her face was veryred.
When you are mentioning people or things for first time or talking about them generally without saying exactly which ones you mean, you use general determiners: a, all, an, another, any, each, either, every, few, little, more, neither, other, several, some,.. (Willis, 1993:22).
e.g: there was a man in the lift.
e.g: we went to an art exhibition.
e.g: there were several reasons for this.Roberts, 199.. :154, points out that determiners provide a touch stone as to what counts as a determiner: any expression that occupies the same position in NP as an article counts as a determiner.
If an expression can appear in sequence with an article in an NP, then that expression must be analyzed as occupying a different position and so cannot be the determiner.
Determiners include:
•Demonstrative (DEM): this, that, those and these.
• Certain quantifiers (Q): some, any, no, each, every, either and neither.
• Possessives (POSS): my, your, its, his, her, our, their and John’s.
In addition there rather two odd expressions, a few and a little, these are considered as simple determiners without further analysis. Let’s analyze the following NPs: those trampolines, somemistakes and my address.
NP NP NP
DET NOM DET NOM DET NOM
DEM N Q N POSS N
Thosetrampolines some mistake my address
The determiner position is not always filled. Consider the subject NPs in the following sentences:
1- essay should be typed
2- smoke gets in your eyes



NP
DET...
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