Fichamento cap. 6 sociolinguistica

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“The purpose of this chapter is twofold. First, I will discuss ways in which the study of rules of speaking can provide information about the interaction process and the situations in which interlocutors negotiate their relationships with one another. Second, I will put forth a theory of my own concerning the way interaction is patterned within the general middle-class American speech community.”(p. 125)
“As Schneider (1968: vi) points out in the preface to his book on American kinship, the insights one has into one’s native language and into the behavior within one’s own speech community permits a level of analysis which is far deeper than that which can be reached in other field sites:
There is another reason why the study of kinship in America is especially important to Americansand that is that Americans, this is a society and a culture which we know well. We speak the language fluently, we know the customs and we have observed the natives in their daily lives. Indeed, we are the natives […].” (p.125)
“The issue of evaluation by other researchers, who are themselves members of the speech community under analysis, is of great importance here.” (p. 125)
“As mentionedearlier, in my opinion, the most useful definition of speech community is that given by Hymes (1972b):”Tentatively, a speech community is defined as a community sharing rules for the conduct and interpretation of speech, and rules for the interpretation of at least one linguistic variety. Both conditions are necessary.” (p. 126)
“A major point to be remembered is that not all speakers of a language doshare the same rules of speaking, and therefore, not all may be said to belong to the same speech community.” (p. 126)
“For this reason, as was pointed out early, it is unrealistic to speak of investigating the rules of speaking for English, or indeed, most other languages. Depending on the group studied, the rules are likely to vary.” (p. 126)
“It may reasonably be expected that rules ofspeaking will be shared within such a group (see Milroy 1980, for example) since interaction is maximal, and people often function in many different roles vis-à-vis one another (on the job, at church, in the neighborhood, etc.).” (p.127)
“For this reason, in our discussions of the usage of middle-class speakers of American English, we are forced, for heuristic purposes, to treat them as a speechcommunity.” (p.127)
“Keeping these reservations in mind, it is the purpose of this chapter to attempt to cast light on the speech behavior of the present-day American urban middle-class, and what this behavior reflects about the structure of a society.” (p. 127)
“An important way in which sociocultural insights may be gained through the study of rules of speaking is to focus on the way the socialidentities of interlocutors vis-à-vis one another condition what is said.” (p. 128)
“On the other hand, if we examine the relationship of speech act form, or degree of elaboration used, to the identity of the interlocutors, we can often get at something much more subtle and difficult to characterize – the social strategies people in a given speech community use to accomplish their purposes – to gaincooperation to form friendships, and to keep their world running smoothly.” (p. 128)
“In some speech communities, for example, it is normal practice for friends, family, and neighbors (who may, in fact, be the same people) to visit or even to turn up for a meal or a weekend or several weeks’ stay without any announcement at all and certainly with no explicit invitation.” (p 128)
“A femalecostumer in a busy department store, for example, may, in order to gain the attention and service of a saleswoman, step out of her role as costumer and engage a friendly chat, signaling solidarity of age and sex, and the difficulties they share as working mothers.” (p. 129)
“I call this theory the Bulge (Wolfson 1986, 1988), because of the way the frequencies of certain types of speech behavior plot...
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