This essay aims to discuss the main causes of the contemporary conflict also identified as ‘new wars’ having as reference a region of choice. Having that in consideration, characteristics and consequences will be analysed and for a better understanding it will brought into light an overview over a case study, Rwanda.
Contemporary conflicts or ‘new wars’, emerged as internal conflicts and notStates wars more significantly since the end of the Cold War. It is estimated that one third of the world’s population is exposed to armed conflict. Although, violent conflict is not confined to a specific part of the globe, a disproportionate number of conflicts take place in countries in development.
Contemporary conflicts can be caused by different issues, however, these can fall subdividedunder unlimited number of factors: land disputes, ethnical, politic, religious or cultural differences, distribution and use of resources, to name a few. Most of conflicts are caused by a combination of factors therefore, is difficult to underline dominant or less dominant factors. (Nafziger, Stuart & Väyrynen, 2000).With the end of the Cold War the world had high expectations over a global peaceestablishment, the so called ‘New World Order’. Unfortunately, this never came to fulfilment due to multiple factors in many recent independent States. On the contrary, since the end of the Cold War more conflicts occurred in this new ‘societies in transition’. These conflicts started being identified as tribal belonging, or for instance, ethnical or religious disputes but soon became evident that itsessence was more of political dispute whereas these issues were used to masquerade the real matter. Many of these States, had pro socialist/communist political approach, and now, using violence as instrument, to their political objective –to secure or sustain power- seek for power and economical gain. (Nafziger, Stuart & Väyrynen, 2000)
Poverty also, is pointed out as a cause for contemporaryconflict since when in power dispute, groups fighting, look at socio-economical inequality (vertical inequality) or put the responsibility at groups (defined by religion, ethnicity, class), for the on-ground situation (horizontal inequality). (Nafziger, Stuart & Väyrynen, pp.16-18, 26, 2000). Another reason for these contemporary conflicts emerge is that most of these fighting groups were/aresupported from outside their borders with food supplies, financially, technical advice and arms. For instance, most wars in Africa were/are sponsored with ammunition from outside the countries on the midst of conflict. (Nafziger, Stuart & Väyrynen, pp.14-15, 2000) Inequality becomes an excuse for the mobilisation of people as a justification for demanded change. On the other hand, wars aggravatepoverty. Once the destruction of community networks and displacement of population from the violent conflict areas, (that once helped for the development of the region, are targets ending up destroyed) occurs this leads to a difficulty on any possible process of development on the basics of daily life.
Contemporary conflicts are marked too by targeting civilians instead of militia targets “Frenchforces in Algeria and US in Vietnam…adopted strategies aimed at deliberately terrorising whole populations”. (Allen & Thomas, p. 173, 2000) No longer war is fought by military strategic points by the population is also a target.
Rwanda, with an area of 26,338 sq. km has an estimated population of 10.7 million (2011 estimative) (url, http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-14093238) shares itsborders with Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo, Tanzania and Uganda.
It is composed by mainly three distinctive people, Hutu, Tutsi and Twa, the latter being just a small 1% of the total population. Around the 11th Century as these ‘clans’ stabilise, Rwanda began to come together. From the 15th Century, Rwanda has established itself as a monarchic system. A power centred Kingdom ruled by...
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