The pistachio nut grows on a small tree or shrub classified as Pistachia vera. Pistachica is a genus of the family Anacardiaceae and is related to cashew (Anacardium occidentale), mango (Mangifera indica) and the pepper tree (Schinus molle). Pistachios can be grown in a range of temperature climates, but commercial plantings require more exacting conditions.Ideally, pistachios require cold winters and hot, dry summers so the major growing areas tend to be the Murray and Murrumbidgee Irrigation areas, with some smaller plantings in Western Australia and Eastern South Australia. The quality of imported pistachio nuts is generally poor in comparison with Australian pistachios, which are fresher, have a superior flavour and do not require fumigation likeimported nuts.
Insufficient winter chilling in the Australian growing areas due to mild winters and possibly progressive climate change has also become a priority issue. Warmer winters affect breaking of dormancy in pistachio trees, which is common with many other deciduous fruit and nut trees, they require winter chilling to ensure uniform budburst and flowering. Pistachiosgenerally require about 1000 hours below 7.5C each winter for commercial nut production. Summer and Autumn should be dry and rain free to prevent staining of shells and a build up of a fungus producing Aflatoxin. (Aflatoxin is a toxic compound that is produced by certain mould and contaminates stored food).
Pistachios are dioecious, meaning male and female flowers are on separatetrees. Therefore male and female trees must be present for fruit set or a branch from a male tree must be grafted to a female tree. A pollinator density of 1 Male in 15 Female trees is now considered adequate. After pollination, nuts, which are produced in bunches near the shoots extremities, develop very rapidly and the outside shell may reach full size after a few weeks. At his stage it is almostempty and the kernel develops during the following 3-4 months.
PLANTING DISTANCES ROW SPACE Single Single Double Double VARIETIES
CSIRO has an extensive collection of Pistacia species and cultivars at Merbein Field Station in the Sunraysia irrigation district have conducted field trials on grower’s properties. The CSIRO variety Sirora, which has come to be the industry standard in Australia,came out of this program. It has the important characteristics of high yield and high percentage split which is important for successful commercial growers.
Grafted pistachio trees are supplied in a 4Ltr poly bag. Rootstocks can be supplied in either a 4Ltr poly bag or 70mm tube.
TREE SPACE TREES PER ACRE 9.75m x 9.75m 42 9.10m x 9.10m 48 9.75m x 4.90m 84 9.10m x 4.50m 96GROWING MEDIA
At Sunraysia Nurseries we take great care with our plants by growing them in pasteurised (aerated-steam treated) media to prevent Phytophthora contamination.
ORIGIN: Seedling from an open pollinated Red Aleppo. Parent plant is growing at USDA Station, Chico, California.
Sunraysia Nurseries Pty Ltd, PO Box 45 Gol Gol NSW 2738 Phone 03 50248502 Fax 0350248551E-mail firstname.lastname@example.org www.sunraysianurseries.com.au
Spreading. Wider than tall.
Mites, Aphids and Thrips.
VIGOUR: Slightly vigorous. LEAVES: Leaflets rounded, usually 3, lateral leaflets overlapping the terminal, length/breadth ratio 1:3. COLOUR: Rose flush, becoming pink while ripening. WEIGHT: 1.0g de-hulled, air dry. SHAPE: Intermediate hazel, slightlyflattened at the suture.
PRUNING AND TRAINING
Pistachio trees do not respond to pruning in the same way as other deciduous fruits. The reasons for this are: • • • as trees age a greater proportion of buds formed are floral pistachio shoots have very strong apical dominance so that few side shoots are formed. buds on shoots older than one year tend to drop off. Vegetative buds form only at or near...