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From 1949, believed that, in the common interest of society, hundreds of millions of people could be led to higher level than individual selfishness. The Chinese experience in search of an egalitarian society charmed many people. The Third World countries admired his fighting spirit and self-sufficiency. Western economists reached full employment recorded in the field, and envied theirdisciplined workforce in the industry. With greater internal transparency, resulting from the termination of the call Cultural Revolution, it was clear that not lived in China, the past three decades, many reasons encantamento22. In fact, at that time, he had hung the elitism and corruption among party leaders and government. The slow progress made in the economy had shown not so easy to develop with theirown resources, without the infusion of investment, technology or foreign aid.
In its international relations, it is known, the Republic since its founding in 1949, had maintained a vast army and armed militia and developed the atomic bomb. China has had conflicts with the Soviet Union and India and frictions with Japan, with respect to the Senkaku Islands, and Vietnam, as the Spratlys. It wasnot, therefore, totally country "peace loving" - as goods educated tour guides, with their uniforms "Mao-style" disseminated in Beijing, foreign visitors. Domestically, in that it knew better the real situation
Chinese were reduced even gains considered, for example, relative to control. Was huge, it turned out, the cost in terms of human rights, prohibition of marriages before 20 years andmandatory one-child per couple. This is not to deny, however, the great achievements of the Maoist period, nor the deeds of the Chinese people. A country that in the first half of the twentieth century, had been ravaged by internal wars, was in the early 1980s, unified, despite the leadership crisis resulting from the Cultural Revolution. How was it possible to verify, China fed and clothed his people. Ahuge effort was made to build dams, dikes and irrigation systems as well as towards self-sufficiency alimentar23. But is this enough? These achievements would have to be seen in perspective.
Mao Zedong became the "need" to "virtue" as a basis of support for political self-sufficiency. Largely, it was a reaction to the fact that the Soviets have ceased any and all aid since 1960, taking with him,including the headquarters of factories whose installation had already been started. The "Great Helmsman", then put all his faith in "the genius
Chinese people. " Henceforth, everything would be solved with the permanent mobilization of the "masses." Hence arise energies and talents previously hidden by oppressive social system. In the 1960s, for example, simple broad national campaignencouraging workers to make suggestions on technological innovations. Obvious exaggerations were reported about the increase in productivity as a result of practical solutions obtained at construction sites, agricultural fields and machine operators in factories. The character "unscientific" practices Maoists reached its peak during
the so-called Cultural Revolution, when teachers and students were forcedto bow before the "wisdom" of the masses. Similar stance was adopted in the Chinese armed forces, where the Maoist concept of "people's war" was based on the premise that "men relied more than machines." From this perspective, hundreds of thousands of foot soldiers with weapons obsolete, would be able to defeat a Soviet army equipped with modern weapons. Remained, however, the nuclear deterrentto the extent that China renounced its own bomb.
With the defeat of the "gang of four", China initiated another campaign, this time to condemn the widow of Mao in order to accuse her and his three accomplices in Shanghai, the majority of the failures and weaknesses of previous years. This new process resulted again in striking exaggeration in the charges. The message, however, was clear: the...
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