The variety of life on Earth, its biological diversity is commonly referred to as biodiversity. The number of species of plants, animals, and microorganisms, the enormous diversity ofgenes in these species, the different ecosystems on the planet, such as deserts, rainforests and coral reefs are all part of a biologically diverse Earth.
Genetic diversityrefers to both the vast numbers of different species as well as the diversity within a species. The greater the genetic diversity within a species, the greater that species' chances of long-termsurvival. This is because negative traits (such as inherited diseases) become widespread within a population when that population is left to reproduce only with its own members.
Species DiversitySpecies diversity is a measure of the diversity within an ecological community that incorporates both species richness (the number of species in a community) and the evenness of species' abundances. Speciesdiversity is one component of the concept of biodiversity.
An ecosystem is a community plus the physical environment that it occupies at a given time. An ecosystem can exist atany scale, for example, from the size of a small tide pool up to the size of the entire biosphere. However, lakes, marshes, and forest stands represent more typical examples of the areas that arecompared in discussions ecosystem diversity.
The term biome means the main groups of plants and animals living in areas of certain climate patterns. It includes the way in which animals,vegetation and soil interact together. The seven biomes of the Earth are:
water (freshwater or ocean)
rainforest (tropical or temperate)
taiga (coniferous forests)
About three quarters of the earth's surface is covered with water. The water biome is divided into fresh water (water with little or no salt in it in ponds, rivers, streams) and...