HOUDA LAZREG AREF1*, KARIMA BEL HADJ SALAH2, JEAN PIERRE CHAUMONT3, ABDELWAHEB FEKIH4, MAHJOUB AOUNI2 AND KHALED SAID1
Laboratoire de Génétique : Biodiversité et valorisation des bio ressources, Institut Supérieur de Biotechnologie, 5000 Monastir,Tunisia 2 Laboratoire des Maladies Transmissibles et Substances Biologiquement Actives, Faculté de Pharmacie 5000 Monastir, Tunisia 3 Laboratoire de Botanique et cryptogamie, Faculté de Pharmacie Besançon 25000 cedex France 4 Laboratoire de Chimie, 03/UR/1202, Faculté de Médecine Dentaire, 5000 Monastir, Tunisie ABSTRACT Methanolic, hexanoïc, chloroformic and ethyl acetate extracts of Ficuscarica latex were investigated for their in vitro antimicrobial proprieties against five bacteria species and seven strains of fungi. The green fruit latex was collected from Chott Mariam Souse, Middle East coast of Tunisia. The antimicrobial activity of the extracts was evaluated and based respectively on the inhibition zone using the disc – diffusion assay, minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) forbacterial testing and the method by calculating inhibition percentage (I%) for fungiinhibiting activities. The methanolic extract had no effect against bacteria except for Proteus mirabilis while the ethyl acetate extract had inhibition effect on the multiplication of five bacteria species (Enterococcus fecalis, Citobacter freundei, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Echerchia coli and Proteus mirabilis).For the opportunist pathogenic yeasts, ethyl acetate and chlorophormic fractions showed a very strong inhibition (100%); methanolic fraction had a total inhibition against Candida albicans (100%) at a concentration of 500µg/ml and a negative effect against Cryptococcus neoformans. Microsporum canis was strongly inhibited with methanolic extract (75%) and totally with ethyl acetate extract at aconcentration of 750µg/ml. Hexanoïc extract showed medium results. Keywords: Antibacterial activity; antifungal activity; dermatophytes; Ficus carica; latex; organic extracts. to the high content of phenolic compounds in these plant extracts. Some phenolic compounds with reported pharmacological proprieties have already been isolated from fig leaves, namely funarocoumarins like psoralen and bergapten(Martins Teixeira et al., 2006), flavonoïds like rutin, phenolic acids like feirulic acids, and also phytosterols like taraxasterol (Martins Teixeira et al., 2006). Vitamin B1 and B2 are also found in figs (Omar et al., 2004). D- glucans have been found as common polymers of the fungal cell wall, they consist of a mixture of linear (1 → 6 ) – β – D – glucan with various (1→6) – branchedoligosaccharides chains, the length of these chains being modulated by culture conditions (Omar et al., 2004). Despite the fact that other parts of fig tree, like latex, have also been reported to have little known pharmacological properties; it inhibits the growth of carcinoma cells (Martins Teixeira et al., 2006) and in traditional medicine it has been used to treat eyesore (Mars, 2003). Our interest inFicus carica species arose from the contrasting biological activities of its latex components.
The fig tree (Ficus carica L.) is a typical Mediterranean species and probably the first intentionally grown plant during the Neolithic revolution. Its domestication preceded that of cereals by about a thousand years (Kislev et al. 2006). Fig trees have thrived in the Middle East andmainly around the Mediterranean basin (Sadder et al., 2006), their syconias have provided valuable food for people and animals (Bandelj et al., 2007). Since ancient times, figs have been used for human consumption and recently, their nutritive and pharmacological values have been investigated. The consumption of figs helps prevent vein blockage (Wang et al., 2003) and its high content in fibers...