Artigo cloud computing

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Doi:10.1145/ 1721654.1721672

Clearing the clouds away from the true
potential and obstacles posed by this
computing capability.
By miChAEL ARmBRuSt, ARmAnDo fox, REAn GRiffith,
Anthony D. JoSEPh, RAnDy KAtz, AnDy KonWinSKi,
Gunho LEE, DAViD PAttERSon, ARiEL RABKin, ion StoiCA,
AnD mAtEi zAhARiA

A View
of Cloud
CLOUd COMPUting, the long-held dream of computingas a utility, has the potential to transform a large
part of the IT industry, making software even more
attractive as a service and shaping the way IT hardware
is designed and purchased. Developers with innovative
ideas for new Internet services no longer require the
large capital outlays in hardware to deploy their service
or the human expense to operate it. They need not
be concernedabout overprovisioning for a service
whose popularity does not meet their predictions, thus
wasting costly resources, or underprovisioning for one
that becomes wildly popular, thus missing potential
customers and revenue. Moreover, companies with
large batch-oriented tasks can get results as quickly as
their programs can scale, since using 1,000 servers for
one hour costs no more than usingone server for 1,000

C ommuniCAtio nS o f th E AC m

| A P R i L 201 0 | vO L . 5 3 | nO. 4

hours. This elasticity of resources, without paying a premium for large scale, is
unprecedented in the history of IT.
As a result, cloud computing is a
popular topic for blogging and white
papers and has been featured in the
title of workshops, conferences, and
even magazines. Nevertheless,confusion remains about exactly what it is
and when it’s useful, causing Oracle’s
CEO Larry Ellison to vent his frustration: “The interesting thing about
cloud computing is that we’ve redefined cloud computing to include everything that we already do…. I don’t
understand what we would do differently in the light of cloud computing
other than change the wording of some
of our ads.”
Our goalin this article is to reduce
that confusion by clarifying terms, providing simple figures to quantify comparisons between of cloud and conventional computing, and identifying
the top technical and non-technical
obstacles and opportunities of cloud
computing. (Armbrust et al4 is a more
detailed version of this article.)
Defining Cloud Computing
Cloud computing refers to both theapplications delivered as services over
the Internet and the hardware and systems software in the data centers that
provide those services. The services
themselves have long been referred to
as Software as a Service (SaaS).a Some
vendors use terms such as IaaS (Infrastructure as a Service) and PaaS (Platform as a Service) to describe their
products, but we eschew these because
accepted definitions forthem still vary
widely. The line between “low-level”
infrastructure and a higher-level “platform” is not crisp. We believe the two
are more alike than different, and we
consider them together. Similarly, the
a For the purposes of this article, we use the
term Software as a Service to mean applications delivered over the Internet. The broadest
definition would encompass any on demandsoftware, including those that run software
locally but control use via remote software licensing.

ILLUstratIon by J on ha n

related term “grid computing,” from
the high-performance computing
community, suggests protocols to offer
shared computation and storage over
long distances, but those protocols did
not lead to a software environment that
grew beyond its community.
The data centerhardware and software is what we will call a cloud. When
a cloud is made available in a pay-asyou-go manner to the general public,
we call it a public cloud; the service being sold is utility computing. We use the
term private cloud to refer to internal
data centers of a business or other organization, not made available to the
general public, when they are large
enough to benefit from the...