Art of war

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Aljubarrota battle, and is influence in the 1383-85 Portuguese Crown crisis
Final Assignment – Art of War

Author: Sérgio Manuel Marques Gomes, University: Uniwersytet Wrocławski

Wrocław, January 2011

Uniwersytet Wrocławski

Aljubarrota battle, and is influence in the 1383-85 Portuguese Crown crisis

January 2010

Abstract
The present document is an essay produced for the subject“Art of War”, ministered at the Uniwersytet Wrocławski in the 2010-11 turn. As a matter of final presentation and final essay, reporting on my work on the subject, I decided to write about one of the most important battles in the Portuguese history, the battle of Aljubarrota, during the 1383-1385 Crown succession crisis, in which the Portuguese army defeated the joint army of the Kingdom ofCastile, Kingdom of France and some Italian allies.

Sérgio Gomes Wrocław, January 2011

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Uniwersytet Wrocławski

Aljubarrota battle, and is influence in the 1383-85 Portuguese Crown crisis

January 2010

A – Comprehensive map for contextualization

Fig. 1 – The Kingdoms on Iberia Peninsula XII-XV century.

I – Context of the political situation

After the recognition of theKingdom of Portugal by the Pope Alexander III in 1179, Portugal faced considerable growth, economical and geographical, during the following two centuries. When in 1367, D. Fernando ascended the throne, he found the kingdom in a very safe situation. However, he involved the Kingdom in a series of Wars against the Kingdom of Castile, and let himself get influenced by the Queen D. Leonor Teles and herfollowers, launching the Kingdom in a very bad economical situation. In the end of D. Fernando reign, the standard of leaving has dropped significantly.

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Uniwersytet Wrocławski

Aljubarrota battle, and is influence in the 1383-85 Portuguese Crown crisis

January 2010

After the third war with Kingdom of Castile in 1382, D. Leonor Teles, the Count João Fernandes Andeiro and many otherNobles considered that a union with Castile would be the best way to save their interests and to end the continued state of war. This way they promoted the signature of a treaty, Salvaterra de Magos treaty in which D. Beatriz, the only D. Fernando child, would get married to D. Juan I of Castile, joining both crowns, being set that when D. Fernando dies D. Leonor Teles would rule the Kingdom tillthe marriage produces a manchild which would rule the Portuguese part, and setting Capital of the joint Kingdom to Toledo (City in Castile). This situation would mean the domination of Portugal by Castile. The marriage happened in 14 May 1383 in Elvas (Portugal) and 17 May 1383 in Badajoz (Castile). D. Fernando dies in October 1383, and this creates unease among nobles all over the Kingdom. A bigpart of the nobles were considering that D. João, half-brother of D. Fernando, was the right entitled to the throne and not D. Leonor Teles as described on the Treaty. Other smaller part was supporting D. João, mester of Avis, unrecognized brother of D. Fernando. After some hesitation, D. João of Avis killed the Count João Andeiro, one of the architects of the Salvaterra de Magos treaty andsupporter of D. Leonor Teles, and after this fact support in the major cities raised on favor of him. In the end of 1384, the result was a massive political crisis, as D. João of Avis was supported by a big part of nobles as inheriting the crown, and a other important group was supporting D. Leonor Teles and the union with Castile.

II – Description of events

In December 1383, noting the uncertainsituation the Kingdom was, D. João of Avis sent emissaries to D. Leonor Teles that already had abandoned Lisbon to settle in Alenquer (50 km 3

Uniwersytet Wrocławski

Aljubarrota battle, and is influence in the 1383-85 Portuguese Crown crisis

January 2010

from Lisbon). These emissaries brought a proposal in which D. Leonor Teles would married D. João of Avis, and with this passing the...
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