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60 YEARS OF THE TRANSISTOR: 1947 – 2007
The Revolution Begins
Invented 60 years ago, the transistor is a key building block of today’s digital world. Perhaps the most important invention of the 20th century, transistors are found in many devices and are the building blocks of computer chips. Intel, the largest manufacturer of computer chips, continues to innovate to help PCs and laptops becomesmaller, faster, sleeker and more energy-e cient. Many new applications and inventions powered by transistors have impacted all of our lives over the past 60 years.
1947 – When it comes to helping jumpstart innovation and technology, no invention is more important than the transistor created 60 years ago at Bell Labs. 1960 – Sony introduces the rst portable, transistorized TV, the TV8-301. It hasa modest 5-inch screen and uses 23 silicon and germanium transistors. 1976 – An operator in an early bunnysuit shows how a 4-inch wafer is prepared for a positive acid spin. 1981 – The Intel® 8088 microprocessor was selected to power the IBM PC.
1983 – Mobile communication changes forever when Motorola introduces the rst commercial mobile phone – the DynaTAC 800X – powered by transistors andcosting a mere $3,995.

1982 – Within six years of its release, an estimated 15 million 286-based personal computers were installed around the world.

2000 – The 42-million transistor debuts. If automobile speed increased similarly over that same period, you could drive from New York City to San Francisco in 13 seconds.

2005 – Dual-core technology was introduced.

1953 – The rst commercialdevice to make use of the transistor is put on the market – the Sonotone 1010 hearing aid.

1965 – Moore’s Law, which states that the number of transistors on a chip doubles about every two years, is born when Intel’s Gordon Moore made a prediction about the semiconductor business that still holds true today.

1972 – Intel’s rst microprocessor, powered the Busicom calculator and paved the wayfor the personal computer.

2006 – The dual core Intel® Itanium® 2 processor launches with the world’s most intricate product design to date, utilizing more than 1.72 billion transistors.

The Revolution Continues
Intel continues to deliver on the promise of Moore’s Law with the introduction of powerful multi-core technologies, transforming the way we live, work and play once again.

1981 –IBM introduces the rst personal computer with an Intel 8088 processor serving as the “brains” behind the computer.

2000 – Silicon Valley based company develops TiVo - a device that records TV programs on an internal hard drive. 1993 – With the creation of the World Wide Web in 1990, the need for transistor speed becomes greater than ever. 2003 – Intel® Centrino® mobile technology brought highperformance, enhanced battery life, and integrated WLAN capability to thinner, lighter PCs. 1993 – The World Wide Web debuts and Intel responds with its Pentium® processor, boasting speeds of 66 and 60 MHz 3.1 million transistors.

1971 – Intel launches its rst microprocessor, the 4004, containing just over 2,000 transistors.

2007 – 45nm Intel debuts the Penryn chip – the biggest change totransistors (all 820 million of them in our quad-core processors) in 40 years based on the company’s 45 nanometer transistor technology. More than 2,000 45nm transistors t across the width of a human hair.

1954 – The rst transistor radio, the Regency TR-1, goes on the market for just $49.99. The radio contains just four transistors.

1947
Moore’s Law
In 1965, Intel co-founder Gordon Moorepredicted that the number of transistors on a chip would double about every two years. Since then, Moore’s Law has fueled a technology revolution as Intel has exponentially increased the number of transistors integrated into its processors for greater performance and energy e ciency.
Note: Number of transistors is an approximate number.

1950

1971 – Busicom introduces the rst single-chip,...
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