The critical role of the national health policy & strategy in strengthening health systems and delivering effective interventions in an integrated approach to accelerate progress towards the health MDGs, with a special focus on the health of women and children.
e Millennium Development Goals
● In September 2000,189 heads of state adopted the UN Millennium Declaration and endorsed
a framework for development. e plan was for countries and development partners to work together to reduce poverty and hunger, and tackle ill health, lack of education, gender inequality, lack of access to clean water and environmental degradation. indicators to monitor progress.
● Eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)were established, with targets for 2015, and ●
ree MDGs relate directly to health; to reduce child mortality by two thirds (MDG 4), to reduce maternal deaths by three quarters and achieve universal access to reproductive health (MDG 5), and to halt and reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS, achieve universal access to treatment for HIV/AIDS by 2010, and halt and reverse the incidence of malaria and othermajor diseases (MDG 6). of people who su er from hunger; MDG 7 includes a target of halving the proportion of the population without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation; and MDG 8 has a target to provide access to a ordable essential drugs in developing countries. Primary education (MDG 2) and empowering women (MDG 3) also lead to health gains. ey are not meant to limitpriorities in health, nor de ne how programmes should be organized and funded.
● Other MDGs have an indirect in uence on health; MDG 1 has a target of halving the proportion
● MDG goals, targets and indicators are interdependent measures of progress.
Progress is being made, but huge challenges remain
The MDGs have been a powerful force in the ﬁght to reduce poverty andinequity Health is at the centre of the development agenda. All the MDGs inﬂuence health, and all causes of ill-health affect the achievement of the MDGs The focus on speciﬁc goals has spurred innovation – new tools, new ways of doing business and new resources Progress is being made, but is unequal and fragile
Conﬂict-affected and fragile states are furthest away fromachieving the MDGs More efforts and investment are necessary to prevent set backs, and to accelerate progress towards the MDGs Better data are key – the lack of investment in health information systems at country level to assess achievements is a signiﬁcant problem Time is short – urgent action is needed
Health-related MDGs – the scorecard
e number of children dying before their hbirthday fell by 30% from 12.4 million in 1990 to 8.8 million in 2008, but diarrhoea and pneumonia still kill 3 million children a year. life – most in the rst week. one third of child deaths. countries.
● New HIV infections declined by 16% between
2000 and 2008.
● 5 million of the 9.5 million people who need
ARV therapy do not have access to treatment.
● 40% of child deaths occur in therst month of ● Undernutrition is an underlying cause in about ● 99% of maternal deaths occur in developing ● In Africa and South-East Asia less than 50% of
women receive skilled care during childbirth.
e proportion of women receiving ARV treatment in pregnancy to prevent mother to child transmission of HIV increased by 10% to 45% between 2007 and 2008. cases by 50% or more between 2000and 2008.
● 38 of 108 malarious countries reduced malaria ●
e global incidence of TB has declined since 2004, but the estimated number of multidrugresistant cases increased to 440 000 in 2008. an estimated 33 million deaths in developing countries in 2004.
● A woman in the wealthiest quintile is three
times more likely to have a skilled birth attendant at the time of delivery than a...