Theoretical framework 05
The purpose of this projectis to show all kinds of pest control and the importance it has to humans and animals.
In this work I will show:
* Cultural Control
* Biological Control
* Breeding for Host Resistance
* Legal & Regulatory Control
* Physical & Mechanical Control
* Eugenics & Birth Control
* Chemical Control – Semiochemicals
* Chemical Control – Conventional Insecticides* Integrated Control
The history of pest control probably began with the first human who ever swatted a mosquito or picked off a louse. From the fossil record, we know that all major types of biting flies and external parasites already existed by the time Homosapiens first appeared on earth. Phthirus and Pediculus, the two genera of lice that feed on humans, have a host range that is limited to primates (apes and monkeys). And we suspect that human fleas (Pulex irritans) and bed bugs (Cimex lectularius) adopted cave-dwellers as hosts because these insects are most closely related to other species that live on bats. But since our primitive ancestorswere hunters and gatherers, they probably found that insects were more useful as food than they were troublesome as pests. (Even today, people in some primitive cultures eat the lice they pick from one another's hair). It was probably not until the dawn of organized agriculture, when insects attacked the plants we grew for food, that we first recognized them as a potential threat to our ownsurvival.Pest control tactics were mentioned occasionally in writings of the ancient Chinese, Sumerian, and Egyptian scholars. Many of these tactics were embedded in religion or superstition, but a few had real scientific merit. Predatory ants, for example, were used in China as early as 1200 B.C. to protect citrus groves from caterpillars and wood boring beetles. Ropes or bamboo sticks tiedbetween adjacent branches helped the ants move easily from place to place. A passage in Homer's Iliad (8th century B.C.) describes the use of fire to drive locusts into the sea, and the ancient Egyptians organized long lines of human drovers to repel swarms of invading locusts. Pythagorus, a Greek philosopher and mathematician, was credited with clearing malaria from a Sicilian town during the 6thcentury B.C. by instructing its residents to drain the marshes. Chemical substances that purportedly killed or repelled insects were in common usage. Many of these were of questionable value, but some worked, and a few are still in use today. Some of the inorganic compounds, such as sulfur and arsenic, have well-established insecticidal activity. And modern science has only recently cometo recognize that many plant extracts used by ancient apothecaries (e.g, lemon oil, wormwood, hellebore, fleabane, etc.) do indeed contain compounds with useful activity against insects.There was very little progress in pest control during the dark ages. Ignorance and superstition abounded. For what it was worth, St. Bernhard excommunicated the flies of his parish in 1121. In a book...